|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 79-81
CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria
Jafar Kolahi1, Reza Birang2
1 Independent Research Scientist, Founder and Managing Editor of Dental Hypotheses, Isfahan, Iran
2 Torabinejad Dental Research Center and Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||28-Aug-2015|
No 24, Faree 15, Pardis, Shahin Shahr, Isfahan - 83179-18981
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Nanobacteria are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. The apatite mineral around the nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh condition. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. The Hypothesis: The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite. Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption and consequently can cause unwanted damage to human host tissues.
Keywords: CO 2 laser, nanobacteria, hydroxyapatite
|How to cite this article:|
Kolahi J, Birang R. CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria. Dent Hypotheses 2015;6:79-81
| Introduction|| |
Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes, nanobacterium) are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. , Nanobacteria have been reported to be fended in animal , and human blood,  in bile,  in tissue culture,  in wastewater,  in Australian sandstones, and in the stratosphere.  Of more interest is that nanobacteria have been found in our galaxy and in external galaxies.  Moreover, unbelievably nanobacteria-like rods are observed at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite  and Martian rock. 
Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with human diseases. They have been implicated in the formation of pathogenic calcifications, e.g. kidney stones, arterial plaque, calcification of coronary arteries and cardiac valves, polycystic kidney disease, formation of psammoma bodies in ovarian malignant tumors, renal tubular calcification, black pigment gallstones, pathological placental calcification, Randall's plaques, mitral annular calcification, and testicular microlithiasis. 
In dental practice, nanobacteria are associated with formation of calculus, pulp stone, and salivary gland stone.  Also, they may involve in biomimetical enamel repair and mineralization the cracks of teeth. 
Moreover, unbelievably nanobacteria can bring us new disease via clouds  and cosmically  through space travels or meteorites or interstellar dusts.
Nevertheless, the prevalence of nanobacteria on a vast cosmic scale and their role in several life-threatening human diseases would be surprising for us. How they can tolerate extreme harsh condition? What is the secret of their wide distribution? Nanobacteria are generally thought to be very difficult to deactivate, are exceptionally resistant to heat, are not deactivated by physical or chemical treatments including autoclaving (20 min at 121°C), ultraviolet (UV) treatment (1-3 h), microwave heating (boiling samples 5 times), and various biocides, e.g. ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. ,,,
The apatite mineral around the organism serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh conditions. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. ,,,
| The Hypothesis|| |
CO 2 laser has been approved by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA ) for clinical usage (http://www.dental-tribune.com/articles/business/americas/14147_fda_approves_worlds_first_co2_laser_system.html). The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite [Figure 1]. , Nowadays, CO 2 laser is commercially available for clinical practitioners. 
As mentioned previously, the apatite mineral around nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield. ,,, On the other hand, as shown in [Figure 1], hydroxyapatite has high absorption coefficient for CO 2 laser.  Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria.
|Figure 1: Outline absorption coefficients relative to laser wavelength ( h t t p : / / w w w . f o t o n a . c o m / m e d i a / o b j a v e / a c a d e m y / p r i p o n k e / l h _ academy_2007_4_810nm_diode_overview.pdf)|
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| Evaluation of the Hypothesis|| |
Already several anti-nanobacterial treatment are available, e.g. usage of tetracycline and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). ,, Yet, usage of laser is a new concept. The main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption  and consequently can cause damage to human host tissues. Hence, destroying of defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria will cause some harms to surrounding human tissues. Also, when trying to put into practice anti-nanobacterial CO 2 laser consideration of laser safety will be very important.  Furthermore, more clinical investigations are necessary to determine and specify CO 2 laser parameters, e.g. pulse width or exposure duration, focal spot, treatment energy, and power irradiance or fluency.
Financial support and sponsorship
The authors do not have any financial support.
Conflicts of interest
Jafar Kolahi has editorial involvement with Dent Hypotheses.
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