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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 108-109

Dietary micronutrients and periodontal health: An update

1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
2 Department of Oral Biology and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
3 Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Arab Medical University, Benghazi, Libya

Date of Web Publication8-Aug-2013

Correspondence Address:
Syed Wali Peeran
Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.116345

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How to cite this article:
Peeran SW, Abdulla KA, Mugrabi MH. Dietary micronutrients and periodontal health: An update. Dent Hypotheses 2013;4:108-9

How to cite this URL:
Peeran SW, Abdulla KA, Mugrabi MH. Dietary micronutrients and periodontal health: An update. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2013 [cited 2023 Mar 22];4:108-9. Available from:


The periodontal diseases are inflammatory disorders and result from a complex interplay of Gram-negative bacterial infection and host response. They are often modified by behavioral factor and are highly prevalent and can affect upto 90% of the population world-wide.

Proper nutrition is the key to the well-being of a person. Historically, specific as well as non-specific nutritional deficiencies have been associated with periodontal disease. Over decades, it has been reported that vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy with decreased formation and maintenance of collagen, increased periodontal inflammation, hemorrhage and tooth loss. [1]

Serum and plasma levels of antioxidants, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene have all been implicated in recent studies to have an inverse association with periodontitis. [2],[3] Vegetable and fruit supplements have also been shown to have beneficial effects on the periodontal parameters when plasma micro nutrient bioavailability is attainable. [4]

Omega-3 fatty acids, derived from fish have a proven role in resolving inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo studies. They have been shown to reduce the activity of the periodontopathic bacteria, help in resolving inflammation as well as reduce alveolar bone loss. [5],[6],[7]

Green tea is a very sort-after refreshing beverage in many parts of the world. In vitro studies have shown that the green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth and cellular adherence of periodontal pathogens. A recent epidemiologic study has also shown an inverse relationship between the intake of green tea and periodontal disease. [8]

Studies have also shown that regular intake of dairy products-lactic acid foods may have a beneficial effect on periodontal disease. [9]

Thus, fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants vitamin C, β-carotene and omega-3 fatty oil dietary supplements such as oily fish, nuts, especially walnuts when administered as dietary supplements can act as useful dietary therapeutic adjunct in resolution of periodontal inflammation and help in treatment of periodontal diseases. A regular intake of lactic acid rich dairy products and green tea may also have a beneficial effect. Historically, we the practicing dentists when treating patients with periodontal diseases as with any other ailments prefer not to look beyond the realms of the established prescription course of antibiotics. This letter is an attempt to draw the attention of the clinicians to take a holistic approach in treating patients and I hope that it will be an eye opener for many readers.

  References Top

1.Nishida M, Grossi SG, Dunford RG, Ho AW, Trevisan M, Genco RJ. Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2000;71:1215-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Brock GR, Butterworth CJ, Matthews JB, Chapple IL. Local and systemic total antioxidant capacity in periodontitis and health. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:515-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Linden GJ, McClean KM, Woodside JV, Patterson CC, Evans A, Young IS, et al. Antioxidants and periodontitis in 60-70- year-old men. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:843-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Chapple IL, Milward MR, Ling-Mountford N, Weston P, Carter K, Askey K, et al. Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: A double-blind RCT. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:62-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Huang CB, George B, Ebersole JL. Antimicrobial activity of n-6, n-7 and n-9fattyacids and their esters for oral microorganisms. Arch Oral Biol 2010;55:555-60.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Naqvi AZ, Buettner C, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Mukamal KJ. n-3 fatty acids and periodontitis in US adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:1669-75.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.El-Sharkawy H, Aboelsaad N, Eliwa M, Darweesh M, Alshahat M, Kantarci A, etal. Adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis with daily dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose aspirin. J Periodontol 2010;81:1635-43.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Kushiyama M, Shimazaki, Murakami M, Yamashita Y. Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2009;80:372-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Shimazaki Y, Shirota T, Uchida K, Yonemoto K, Kiyohara Y, Iida M, et al. Intake of dairy products and periodontal disease: The Hisayamastudy. J Periodontol 2008;79:131-7.  Back to cited text no. 9


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