Search Article 
Advanced search 
Official publication of the American Biodontics Society and the Center for Research and Education in Technology
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 34-41

Biomedical applications of phytomedicines: Dental perspective

1 Department of Prosthodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication9-Jun-2016

Correspondence Address:
Meenakshi Iyer
Department of Prosthodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University, SS Nagara, Mysore - 570 015, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.183757

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Ayurveda is the ancient Indian system of health care and longevity. Ayurvedic treatment is aimed at the patient as an organic whole, and treatment consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Currently, Ayurveda is widely practiced in the Hindustan peninsula (India and the neighboring countries) and in recent years, there has been a resurgence of herbs in economically developed countries such as those in Europe, United States, and Japan. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was made in PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS/BBO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, sciencedirect, and Google Scholar databases. Results: Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamics sense, drugs themselves. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side effects, and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for dental usage might prove to be advantageous. Conclusion: Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers.

Keywords: Dentistry, phytomedicines, toxicity

How to cite this article:
Iyer M, Gujjari AK, Rao RN, Gowda DV, Srivastava A. Biomedical applications of phytomedicines: Dental perspective. Dent Hypotheses 2016;7:34-41

How to cite this URL:
Iyer M, Gujjari AK, Rao RN, Gowda DV, Srivastava A. Biomedical applications of phytomedicines: Dental perspective. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Sep 30];7:34-41. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Ayurveda is the ancient Indian system of health care and longevity. Ayurvedic treatment is aimed at the patient as an organic whole, and treatment consists of the salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. [1] Currently, Ayurveda is widely practiced in the Hindustan peninsula (India and the neighboring countries) and in recent years, there has been a resurgence of herbs in economically developed countries such as those in Europe and in the United States and Japan. [2] There are approximately 1,250 Indian medicinal plants [3] that are used in formulating beneficial measures according to Ayurveda or other ethnicities. This 5,000-year-old system of phytotherapy involves a combination of lifestyle management (which includes diet, exercise, and meditation), and treatment with specific herbs and minerals to cure various diseases.

Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamics sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines. There is a lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs in the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), Digitalis (from foxglove), and Sudafed (modeled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs; even then, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that it requires more research. [4] The botanicals in the Ayurvedic Materia Medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine, particularly traditional Asian medicine, may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. [5] Oral health is integral to the general well-being and relates to the quality of life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. [6] Despite several chemical agents being commercially available, these can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhea, and tooth staining. [7],[8] As a result, natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered as good alternatives to synthetic chemicals.

In this review, an attempt has been made to understand the mechanism of action of various phytogens by considering studies that include individual plants or mixtures of plants consistent with the philosophy of Ayurveda.

  Methods Top

Research question

To summarize the current evidence on the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacies of commonly used herbs in Indian medicine, they were screened.

Research protocol

A written research protocol was prepared before retrieving the literature. The protocol emphasized the methods for literature search, screening, and data extraction to minimize bias before starting the literature search.

Literature search

A comprehensive literature search was done from July 20, 2015 to September 19, 2015 from PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS/BBO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar databases [Table 1]. The following search terms were employed in a sequential order for electronic retrieval of the required literature from the databases:
Table 1: Summary of the articles considered for discussion and review

Click here to view

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy.
  2. Extracts.
  3. Oral microflora.
  4. Streptococcus mutans and/or Lactobacillus acidophilus.
  5. Antifungal activity/Candida albicans.

Initial screening

The journal articles with any of the above cited search terms either in the title, abstract, or keywords were considered for the initial screening. The titles and abstracts of these articles were checked for relevance in the present review. This initial screening was performed by two investigators. The type of study, herbal extracts, comparative groups, the microorganisms investigated, methods employed for antimicrobial efficacy testing, and outcome measures were noted in a standardized electronic data extraction sheet.

A preliminary list of studies on the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal extracts on dental caries (S. mutans and L. acidophilus) and plaque microorganisms (primary, secondary, and tertiary plaque colonizers) was prepared following the initial screening. Then, a list of 20 herbs/herbal extracts commonly available were selected based on the relevant terms mentioned and the articles investigating the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacies of these 20 herbal extracts were considered in the next phase.

Second-stage screening and selection of articles

The abstracts of these articles were scrutinized by the investigators. The outcome parameters antimicrobial and antifungal activities were listed out.

Toxicity of phytomedicines

There has been acceptance and public interest in natural therapies both in developing and developed countries with these herbal remedies being available not only in drug stores but at present also in food stores and supermarkets. The fact that something is natural does not necessarily make it safe or effective. Traditionally, herbs and herbal products have been considered to be nontoxic and have been used by the general public and traditional medicinal doctors worldwide to treat a range of ailments. The active ingredients of plant extracts are chemicals that are similar to those in purified medications, and they have the same potential to cause serious adverse effects. On many occasions, the potential toxicity of herbs and herbal products has not been recognized. [45]

In the context of toxicity, herbs can be broadly classified into three major categories:

  1. The food herbs: Medicines such as peppermint, ginger, garlic, hawthorn, nettles, lemon, and balm are gentle in action, have low toxicity, and are unlikely to cause any adverse response. They can be consumed in substantial quantities over long periods of time without any acute or chronic toxicity. However, they may bring about allergic reactions in certain individuals.
  2. The medicinal herbs: These are not daily "tonics" and need to be used with greater knowledge (dosage and rationale for use) for specific conditions (with a medical diagnosis) and usually only for a limited period. They have a greater potential for adverse reactions and in some cases drug interactions. They include Aloe vera, black cohosh, comfrey, Echinacea, ephedra, Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, kava-kava, milk thistle, and Senna.
  3. The poisonous herbs have a strong potential for either acute or chronic toxicity and should only be prescribed by trained clinicians who understand their toxicology and appropriate use. Fortunately, the vast majority of these herbs is not available to the public and is not sold in health food or herbal stores. Aconite, Arnica spp., Atropa belladonna, Digitalis, Datura, male fern, Gelsemium, and Veratrum are some examples. [46] The general public and many practitioners also believe that the herbs are nontoxic. Herbs and herbal preparations can cause toxic adverse effects, serious allergic reactions, adverse drug interactions, and can interfere with laboratory tests. [47],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52],[53],[54]
High-risk patients such as the elderly, expectant mothers, children, those taking several medications for chronic conditions, those with hypertension, depression, high cholesterol, or congestive heart failure should be more cautious in taking herbal medicine. Based on published reports, the side effects or toxic reactions associated with herbal medicines in any form are rare [Table 2]. This could be due to the fact that adverse reactions following their use are in process, or because the natures of the side effects or minor allergic reactions are such that they are not reported. Perhaps the major problem with regard to the safety of herbal medicines is related to the manufacturing practice including contamination, substitution, incorrect preparation and dosage, intentional addition of unnatural toxic substances, interactions involving synthetic prescriptions, drugs, and herbal medicines, either intentional or unintentional mislabeling, and the presence of natural toxic contaminants. Modifications may involve stopping herbal supplements prior to dental procedures/treatment or adjusting the dental procedures/treatment plans. Realizing the medical problems associated with the use of some herbs, the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons recommend the discontinuation of herbal medications at least 2 weeks prior to surgery. Similar procedures in dental clinics demand discontinuity of herbal medications. This could be achieved by a combined effort of both dental practitioners and hygienists to obtain information from patients on the use of herbal supplements and educate themselves about the products reported using available reliable sources of scientific information. [55]
Table 2: Herbal medications and dietary supplements associated with adverse oral effects[56]

Click here to view

Phytogens against candidal infections

Candida spp. are considered opportunistic pathogens as they are both colonizers and have the ability to cause infections in response to alterations in the host's physiology. [56] The presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity of healthy individuals varies from 35% to 60%. C. albicans is the most prevalent species, totaling 60-70% of the isolates followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. [57],[58],[59] An imbalance between the host factors (local/systemic) and virulence factors could trigger candidal infection [Table 3]. [51],[52]
Table 3: Various factors responsible for initiating candidal infection

Click here to view

Conventional therapeutic options for oral candidiasis range from topical polyene antifungals to azole agents. The increase in the occurrence of resistance of Candida spp. to conventional antifungals has been reported in the last few decades. Apart from this, antifungal drugs show relevant limitations such as low spectrum, interaction with other drugs, high cost, and toxic effects; the toxic effects are a result of the similarities between yeast and host cells (both eukaryotic), relevant in the clinical context. In particular for erythematous candidosis, the recurrence of the lesion after treatment with conventional antifungals has been reported, especially when associated to poor denture hygiene. [60] Investigations on the dental applications of propolis for Candida infections have been done. The use of propolis ethanolic extract inhibited in vitro growth of C. albicans isolates from oral candidiasis. Moreover, this extract showed a similar clinical effectiveness for the treatment of patients with denture-associated candidiasis when compared to miconazole. [61]

Plant extracts, essential oils, and compounds have been an important source of research for new antifungal options against Candida spp. The effectiveness of Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil on the biofilm formation by C. albicans isolates from patients with periodontal disease was reported. [62] Cybopogon citratus and triphala dry extract, Syzygium aromaticum essential oils inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation and were more active against preformed biofilms when compared to amphotericin B and fluconazole in vitro. [63] Methanol extract of Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum, and Syzygium cumini showed antifungal activity on Candida species. [64] Methanol extract of Ficus deltoidea showed in vitro activity on C. albicans. [65] Some studies already evaluate isolated substances or secondary metabolites from plants. The effects of licorice and its isolated compounds (licochalcone A, glabridin, and glycyrrhizic acid) on C. albicans also show promising results. Glabridin and licochalcone A showed potent antifungal activity and prevented yeast-hyphal transition. Apart from this, licochalcone Z showed a significant effect on C. albicans biofilm formation. [66],[67]

Triphala, which is an important therapeutic and antimicrobial aid in various ailments, is a combination of three tropical fruits' preparation, which has been established as potent antimicrobial and antifungal agents. The anticandidal activity may be attributed to the gallic acid components present in triphala. [44] According to the results of some studies, it was concluded that S. aromaticum bud extracts and clove oil when tested against the bacterial and fungal strains emerged as the potent agent exhibiting even much higher antibacterial and antifungal activities than the standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B, respectively. The need of the hour is to perform more and more screening of the natural products or plant parts as such screening experiments form a primary platform for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies that may open the possibilities of finding new clinically effective antifungal and antibacterial compounds against the dental caries pathogens and the resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens. [63]

In a study conducted by Ngari et al., [68] various plant parts used for the management of oral health are roots were highly utilized (34.28%) followed by leaves (31.4%), bark (14.3%), fruits (8.6%), and seeds (8.6%) while plant sap was least utilized (2.8%). The herbs were used in different forms such as chewing sticks, herbal pastes, herbal powders, capsules, suspensions, saps, mixtures, or just unprocessed materials [Table 4]. Most of herbal materials were used in the management of toothache (30.5%) followed by mouth ulcers (27%).
Table 4: Herbal preparation available for oral diseases[68]

Click here to view

  Conclusion Top

In the age of intensive investigations aiming to discover new compounds, which can be used in treatment, we shall not forget about natural substances of herbal origin. Plants are a precious source of natural compounds, which can be used both in prophylaxis and treatment of oral cavity and teeth diseases. Phytotherapy is useful in the treatment of chronic pathological conditions in which medicines are not well-tolerated. Herbal drugs can be used for a long time, and do not cause addiction and allergic reactions. The research assessing the antimicrobial efficacy of a combination of plant extracts is the need of the hour, and such research will aid the development of a novel, innovative method that can simultaneously inhibit the two most common dental diseases of mankind, apart from lowering the development of drug resistance.


The authors express their gratitude to Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara (JSS) University and JSS Dental College and Hospital for providing the necessary support in the due course of the work.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Amrutesh S. Dentistry and Ayurveda-1. Indian J Dent Res 2003;14:1-5   Back to cited text no. 1
Amruthesh S. Dentistry and Ayurveda-II. Basic principles. Indian J Dent Res 2003;14:132-40.   Back to cited text no. 2
Amruthesh S. Dentistry and Ayurveda-III (basics-ama, immunity, ojas, rasas, etiopathogenesis and prevention). Indian J Dent Res 2007;18:112-9.   Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Taheri JB, Azimi S, Rafieian N, Zanjani HA. Herbs in dentistry. Int Dent J 2011;61:287-96.  Back to cited text no. 4
Petersen PE. The World Oral Health Report 2003: Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21 st century - The approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31(Suppl 1):3-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
Jenkinson HF, Lamont RJ. Oral microbial communities in sickness and in health. Trends Microbiol 2005;13:589-95.  Back to cited text no. 6
Park KM, You JS, Lee HY, Baek NI, Hwang JK. Kuwanon G. An antibacterial agent from the root bark of Morus alba against oral pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;84:181-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
Chung JY, Choo JH, Lee MH, Hwang JK. Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans. Phytomedicine 2006;13:261-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
Kajaria DK, Gangwar M, Kumar D, Kumar Sharma A, Tilak R, Nath G, et al. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and bronchodialator effect of a polyherbal drug-Shrishadi. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:905-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
Aneja KR, Joshi R. Antimicrobial activity of Syzygium aromaticum and its bud oil against dental cares causing microorganisms. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2010;14:960-75.   Back to cited text no. 10
Dharmani P, Palit G. Exploring Indian medicinal plants for antiulcer activity. Indian J Pharmacol 2006;38:95-9.   Back to cited text no. 11
  Medknow Journal  
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564-82.   Back to cited text no. 12
Petti S, Scully C. Polyphenols, oral health and disease: A review. J Dent 2009;37:413-23.   Back to cited text no. 13
Colvard MD, Cordell GA, Villalobos R, Sancho G, Soejarto DD, Pestle W, et al. Survey of medical ethnobotanicals for dental and oral medicine conditions and pathologies. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:134-42.   Back to cited text no. 14
Telles S, Naveen KV, Balkrishna A. Use of Ayurveda in promoting dental health and preventing dental caries. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:246.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Nagata H, Inagaki Y, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Kataoka K, Kuboniwa M, et al. Effect of eucalyptus extract chewing gum on periodontal health: A double-masked, randomized trial. J Periodontol 2008;79:1378-85.   Back to cited text no. 16
Pistorius A, Willershausen B, Steinmeier EM, Kreislert M. Efficacy of subgingival irrigation using herbal extracts on gingival inflammation. J Periodontol 2003;74:616-22.   Back to cited text no. 17
Wolinsky LE, Mania S, Nachnani S, Ling S. The inhibiting effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation. J Dent Res 1996;75:816-22.   Back to cited text no. 18
Chaturvedi TP. Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:107-9.   Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Kawamori T, Lubet R, Steele VE, Kelloff GJ, Kaskey RB, Rao CV, et al. Chemopreventive effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Res 1999;59:597-601.   Back to cited text no. 20
Perumal Samy R, Gopalakrishnakone P. Therapeutic potential of plants as anti-microbials for drug discovery. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2010;7:283-94.  Back to cited text no. 21
Jurenka JS. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): A review. Altern Med Rev 2008;13:128-44.   Back to cited text no. 22
Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS. Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6:79-92.   Back to cited text no. 23
Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, Pereira Mdo S, Higino JS, Peixoto MH. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans. Braz Dent J 2006;17:223-7.   Back to cited text no. 24
Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio MC, Sampaio FC, Higino JS. Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis. Mycoses 2003;46:192-6.   Back to cited text no. 25
Amruthesh S. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Tinospora cordifolia in patients on radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck - pilot study. Int J Contemp Dent 2010;1:24-30.   Back to cited text no. 26
Visavadia BG, Honeysett J, Danford M. Manuka honey dressing: An effective treatment for chronic wound infections. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;46:696-7.   Back to cited text no. 27
Jittapiromsak N, Sahawat D, Banlunara W, Sangwanich P, Thunyakitpisal P. Acemannan, an extracted product of Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. Tissue Eng Part A 2010;16:1997-2006.  Back to cited text no. 28
Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K, Rathidevi R, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. Antiulcer and in vitro antioxidant activities of Jasminum grandiflorum L. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:464-70.   Back to cited text no. 29
Rai S, Wahile A, Mukherjee K, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:322-7.   Back to cited text no. 30
Marwick C. Researchers investigate potential use of plant as a pain killer. BMJ 2005;331:1104.   Back to cited text no. 31
Sastravaha G, Yotnuengnit P, Booncong P, Sangtherapitikul P. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts. A preliminary study. J Int Acad Periodontol 2003;5:106-15.   Back to cited text no. 32
Dev S. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: Some examples. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107:783-9.   Back to cited text no. 33
Carnat A, Carnat AP, Fraisse D, Ricoux L, Lamaison JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea. Fitoterapia 2004;75:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
Bisset NG. Euphrasiae herba. In: Bisset NG, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgatt: Medpharm; 1994. p. 195-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
Koo H, Gomes BP, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Park YK, Cury JA. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens. Arch Oral Biol 2000;45:141-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
Sookto T, Srithavaj T, Thaweboon S, Thaweboon B, Shrestha B. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:376-80.  Back to cited text no. 37
Yousefzadi M, Sonboli A, Karimic F, Ebrahimi SN, Asghari B, Zeinalia A. Antimicrobial activity of some Salvia species essential oils from Iran. Z Naturforsch C 2007;62:514-8.  Back to cited text no. 38
Tohidpour A, Sattari M, Omidbaigi R, Yadegar A, Nazemi J. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine 2010;17:142-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
Long C, Moulis C, Stanislas E, Fouraste I. L'acuboside et le catalpol dans les feuilles de Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago maior L. et Plantago media L. J Pharm Belg 1995;50:484-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
Radwan-Pytlewska K, Babki L. The use of medicinal plants in dental treatment. Wiad Ziel 1990;32:7-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
Fleer H, Verspohl EJ. Antispasmodic activity of an extract from Plantago lanceolata L. and some isolated compounds. Phytomedicine 2007;14:409-15.  Back to cited text no. 42
Ibrahim KM, Naem RK, Abd-Sahib AS. Antibacterial activity of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seed extracts against some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Al-Nahrain University 2013;16:188-92.   Back to cited text no. 43
Shetty PJ, Hegde V, Gomes L. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014;5:11-4.  Back to cited text no. 44
Bandarnayake WM. Quality control, screening, toxicity, and regulation of herbal drugs. Chapter 2. In: Ahmad I, Aqil F, Owais M. editors. Modern Phytomedicine: Turning Medicinal Plants into Drugs. Wiley VCH; 2006. p. 47-54.  Back to cited text no. 45
Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol 2013;4:177.  Back to cited text no. 46
Florido-Lopez F, Gonzalez-delgado P, Saenz de San Pedro B, Perez-Miranda C, De Arias de Saavedra JM, Marin-Pozo JF. Allergy to natural honeys and camomile tea. Int Arch Allergy Immun 1995;108:170-4.  Back to cited text no. 47
D'Arcy PF. Adverse reactions and interactions with herbal medicines. Part 1. Adverse reactions. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 1991;10:189-208.  Back to cited text no. 48
D'Arcy PF. Adverse reactions and interactions with herbal medicines. Part 2-Drug interactions. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 1993;12:147-62.  Back to cited text no. 49
Rosenblatt M, Mindel J. Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1108.  Back to cited text no. 50
Pillans PI. Toxicity of herbal products. N Z Med J 1995;108: 469-71.  Back to cited text no. 51
Winston D. Nvwoti. In: Tierra M, editor. American Herbalism. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 52
McRae S. Eelevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and siberian ginseng. CMAJ 1996;155:293-5.  Back to cited text no. 53
World Health Organization. Supplementary Guidelines on Good Manufacturing Practices for the Manufacture of Herbal Medicines. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 937. World Health Organization; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 54
Abebe W. Herbal supplements may require modifications of dental treatment. Dent Today 2009;28:136-7.   Back to cited text no. 55
Jeske AS. Synergism between pharmacology and oral health. In: Cappelli D, Mobley C, editors. Prevention in Clinical Oral Health Care. Mosby; 2007. p. 78-90.  Back to cited text no. 56
Odds FC. Candida and Candidosis. London: Baillière Tindall; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 57
Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane MW. Oral Candidosis. Cambridge: Universty Press; 1990.  Back to cited text no. 58
Ellepola AN, Samaranayake LP. Oral candidal infections and antimycotics. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2000;11:172-98.  Back to cited text no. 59
Gendreau L, Loewy ZG. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. J Prosthodont 2011;20:251-60.  Back to cited text no. 60
Martins RS, Péreira ES Jr, Lima SM, Senna MI, Mesquita RA, Santos VR. Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis. J Oral Sci 2002;44:41-8.  Back to cited text no. 61
Furletti VF, Teixeira IP, Obando-Pereda G, Mardegan RC, Sartoratto A, Figueira GM, et al. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil upon oral Candida albicans biofilm formation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:985832.  Back to cited text no. 62
Bhat V, Sharma SM, Shetty V, Shastry CS, Rao V, Shenoy SM, et al. Screening of selected plant essential oils for their antifungal activity against candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Nitte University Journal of Health Science 2014;4:46-51.  Back to cited text no. 63
Höfling JF, Anibal PC, Obando-Pereda GA, Peixoto IA, Furletti VF, Foglio MA, et al. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species. Braz J Biol 2010; 70:1065-8.  Back to cited text no. 64
Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB. Antimicrobial activity of Ficus deltoidea Jack (Mas Cotek). Pak J Pharm Sci 2012;25:675-8.  Back to cited text no. 65
Messier C, Grenier D. Effect of licorice compounds licochalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth and virulence properties of Candida albicans. Mycoses 2011;54:e801-6.  Back to cited text no. 66
Messier C, Epifano F, Genovese S, Grenier D. Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases. Oral Dis 2012;18:32-9.  Back to cited text no. 67
Ngari FW, Wanjau RN, Njagi EN, Gikonyo NK. Herbal materials used in management of oral conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2014;8:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 68


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Their Diverse Applications
Gattu Sampath, Yih-Yuan Chen, Neelamegam Rameshkumar, Muthukalingan Krishnan, Kayalvizhi Nagarajan, Douglas J. H. Shyu
Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(18): 3126
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elettaria cardamomum Oil, Trachyspermum ammi Oil and 5% Sodium Hypochlorite Against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate
KS Ashna Beegam, Asha Joseph, VP Prabath Singh
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. 2021; 12(4): 396
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Efficacy of 3% Psidium guajava local drug delivery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled trial
H Manohar Sharma,PC Deepika,MP Venkatesh,S Chandan,Pratibha Shashikumar
Journal of International Oral Health. 2021; 13(1): 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded603    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal